Invented by Aloizy Zenefelder, at the initial stage the lithography was represented as an image on canvas or paper, transferred from a massive stone or metal plates by a print.
Nowadays, the electron beam lithographer Raith e_LinePLUS, allows scientists to create memory cells with a size of micro elements less than 20 nanometers on a centimetric slice of silicon, which can keep many thousands similar engravings.
The earliest evidence teeth treatment goes back to 7-9 thousand years BC. The size of depth and diameter of holes illustrate the primitiveness of used tools.
In modern stomatology, binocular magnifying glasses Carl Zeiss EyeMag Pro provide excellent expertise and give opportunity to make the gaps, hardly noticeable to a human eye.
A Greek astronomer Gipparkhus, in the II century BC watched stars without use of tools and has made a catalog of 1000 stars of the primary and secondary magnitudes.
Modern optical-mechanical Carl Zeiss Universarium M9 systems, allow us to observe more than 9000 stars up to the sixth magnitude in both hemispheres.
In 1908, Alexander Maksimov introduced the concept "stem cell" into applied science and medicine, that has predetermined further development of cellular biology.
Currently, applications of stem cells changed the fundamental idea of treatment of many diseases. The CompacT CellBase CT system from the TAP Biosystems company helps to atomize the process and increase efficiency.
In the XVII century, scientists Robert Hooke and Antoni van Levenguk have observed various small objects and the elementary organisms in a microscope for the first time. They precisely described them and gave illustrations.
The newest system of LSFM microscopy Carl Zeiss Lightsheet Z.1, allows biologists to follow the development of the entire organisms and processes occurring in them at sub-cellular level.
In the III century AD, in the Alexandrian library were created all necessary facilities for efficient and intense work of scientists and philosophers: science classes, living rooms, dining rooms and gardens.
Modern solution for learning 3D Histech in distance "E-School", allows medical students to get remote access to the advanced scientific materials, providing comfortable conditions for simultaneous work and training.
The last archeological discoveries in the Turkish town Iziskepa, allowed them to conclude that in the Neolithic era ancient surgeons could perform a skull operations using only some primitive tools, and patients lived at least 2-3 more years after surgical intervention.
Modern operational microscope Carl Zeiss OPMI Pentero 900 allows neurosurgeons to perform difficult brain operations accurately, considerably increasing the years and quality of patient's life.
Rudolf Virkhov spent more than three years on creation of the revolutionary theory of cellular pathology which has both correct, and some wrong statements and was illustrated in pictures.
Thermo Scientific Cryo-Star NX 70 cryostat is used in pathoanatomy offices and allows effectively and thoroughly to prepare histologic preparations, to investigate them and to make the preliminary diagnosis during a surgery.
In a classical antiquity, people had to overcome huge distances to receive high-quality medical care.
Nowadays, 3D Histech used in telemedicine allows to transfer the image received on a digital microscope of Pannoramic 250 Flash, to any destination in the world. Moreover, it is possible to make the diagnosis remotely and to get advice from the expert.